Meandering Pattern 433 MHz Antennas for Ingestible Capsules

A number of design challenges are associated with in-body devices, especially ingestible capsules, including selection of operation frequency and antenna design. Operation frequency, miniaturization, gain, and interference with the environment and the internal components of ingestible capsules are all challenging factors. In this work, we design and measure the performance of miniature antennas that can be included in ingestible capsules. The meandering pattern designs are implemented with a 433 MHz center frequency which is within one of the industrial, scientific and medical (ISM) bands. The antenna patterns are rolled into cylinders to reflect their configuration inside a capsule. The effects of different antenna design features, environmental dielectric changes, and the battery locations relative to the antenna traces are explored. We show that the optimized antenna can offer acceptable performance even when the center frequency shifts due to the modulation of the dielectric constant of the media and by the insertion of batteries. Both simulations and measurements provide insight into how the meandering antenna should be designed for the desired frequency that can be expanded to other ingestible and implantable systems.

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