Video Based Mobility Monitoring of Elderly People Using Deep Learning Models

In recent years, the number of older people living alone has increased rapidly. Innovative vision systems to remotely assess people’s mobility can help healthy, active, and happy aging. In the related literature, the mobility assessment of older people is not yet widespread in clinical practice. In addition, the poor availability of data typically forces the analyses to binary classification, e.g. normal/anomalous behavior, instead of processing exhaustive medical protocols. In this paper, real videos of elderly people performing three mobility tests of a clinical protocol are automatically categorized, emulating the complex evaluation process of expert physiotherapists. Videos acquired using low-cost cameras are initially processed to obtain skeletal information. A proper data augmentation technique is then used to enlarge the dataset variability. Thus, significant features are extracted to generate a set of inputs in the form of time series. Four deep neural network architectures with feedback connections, even aided by a preliminary convolutional layer, are proposed to label the input features in discrete classes or to estimate a continuous mobility score as the result of a regression task. The best results are achieved by the proposed Conv-BiLSTM classifier, which achieves the best accuracy, ranging between 88.12% and 90%. Further comparisons with shallow learning classifiers still prove the superiority of the deep Conv-BiLSTM classifier in assessing people’s mobility, since deep networks can evaluate the quality of test executions.

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Code Generation Using Machine Learning: A Systematic Review

Recently, machine learning (ML) methods have been used to create powerful language models for a broad range of natural language processing tasks. An important subset of this field is that of generating code of programming languages for automatic software development. This review provides a broad and detailed overview of studies for code generation using ML. We selected 37 publications indexed in arXiv and IEEE Xplore databases that train ML models on programming language data to generate code. The three paradigms of code generation we identified in these studies are description-to-code, code-to-description, and code-to-code. The most popular applications that work in these paradigms were found to be code generation from natural language descriptions, documentation generation, and automatic program repair, respectively. The most frequently used ML models in these studies include recurrent neural networks, transformers, and convolutional neural networks. Other neural network architectures, as well as non-neural techniques, were also observed. In this review, we have summarized the applications, models, datasets, results, limitations, and future work of 37 publications. Additionally, we include discussions on topics general to the literature reviewed. This includes comparing different model types, comparing tokenizers, the volume and quality of data used, and methods for evaluating synthesized code. Furthermore, we provide three suggestions for future work for code generation using ML.

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On the History and Future of 100% Renewable Energy Systems Research

Research on 100% renewable energy systems is a relatively recent phenomenon. It was initiated in the mid-1970s, catalyzed by skyrocketing oil prices. Since the mid-2000s, it has quickly evolved into a prominent research field encompassing an expansive and growing number of research groups and organizations across the world. The main conclusion of most of these studies is that 100% renewables is feasible worldwide at low cost. Advanced concepts and methods now enable the field to chart realistic as well as cost- or resource-optimized and efficient transition pathways to a future without the use of fossil fuels. Such proposed pathways in turn, have helped spur 100% renewable energy policy targets and actions, leading to more research. In most transition pathways, solar energy and wind power increasingly emerge as the central pillars of a sustainable energy system combined with energy efficiency measures. Cost-optimization modeling and greater resource availability tend to lead to higher solar photovoltaic shares, while emphasis on energy supply diversification tends to point to higher wind power contributions. Recent research has focused on the challenges and opportunities regarding grid congestion, energy storage, sector coupling, electrification of transport and industry implying power-to-X and hydrogen-to-X, and the inclusion of natural and technical carbon dioxide removal (CDR) approaches. The result is a holistic vision of the transition towards a net-negative greenhouse gas emissions economy that can limit global warming to 1.5°C with a clearly defined carbon budget in a sustainable and cost-effective manner based on 100% renewable energy-industry-CDR systems. Initially, the field encountered very strong skepticism. Therefore, this paper also includes a response to major critiques against 100% renewable energy systems, and also discusses the institutional inertia that hampers adoption by the International Energy Agency and the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, as well as possible negative connections to community acceptance and energy justice. We conclude by discussing how this emergent research field can further progress to the benefit of society.

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On Online Adaptive Direct Data Driven Control

Based on our recent contributions on direct data driven control scheme, this paper continues to do some new research on direct data driven control, paving another way for latter future work on advanced control theory. Firstly, adaptive idea is combined with direct data driven control, one parameter adjustment mechanism is constructed to design the parameterized controller online. Secondly, to show the input-output property for the considered closed loop system, passive analysis is studied to be similar with stability. Thirdly, to validate whether the designed controller is better or not, another safety controller modular is added to achieve the designed or expected control input with the essence of model predictive control. Finally, one simulation example confirms our proposed theories. More generally, this paper studies not only the controller design and passive analysis, but also some online algorithm, such as recursive parameter identification and online subgradient descent algorithm. Furthermore, safety controller modular is firstly introduced in direct data driven control scheme.

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Machine Learning Based Transient Stability Emulation and Dynamic System Equivalencing of Large-Scale AC-DC Grids for Faster-Than-Real-Time Digital Twin

Modern power systems have been expanding significantly including the integration of high voltage direct current (HVDC) systems, bringing a tremendous computational challenge to transient stability simulation for dynamic security assessment (DSA). In this work, a practical method for energy control center with the machine learning (ML) based synchronous generator model (SGM) and dynamic equivalent model (DEM) is proposed to reduce the computational burden of the traditional transient stability (TS) simulation. The proposed ML-based models are deployed on the field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) for faster-than-real-time (FTRT) digital twin hardware emulation of the real power system. The Gated Recurrent Unit (GRU) algorithm is adopted to train the SGM and DEM, where the training and testing datasets are obtained from the off-line simulation tool DSAToolsTM/TSAT®. A test system containing 15 ACTIVSg 500-bus systems interconnected by a 15-terminal DC grid is established for validating the accuracy of the proposed FTRT digital twin emulation platform. Due to the complexity of emulating large-scale AC-DC grid, multiple FPGA boards are applied, and a proper interface strategy is also proposed for data synchronization. As a result, the efficacy of the hardware emulation is demonstrated by two case studies, where an FTRT ratio of more than 684 is achieved by applying the GRU-SGM, while it reaches over 208 times for hybrid computational-ML based digital twin of AC-DC grid.

*Published in the IEEE Power & Energy Society Section within IEEE Access.

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How Practical Are Fault Injection Attacks, Really?

Fault injection attacks (FIA) are a class of active physical attacks, mostly used for malicious purposes such as extraction of cryptographic keys, privilege escalation, attacks on neural network implementations. There are many techniques that can be used to cause the faults in integrated circuits, many of them coming from the area of failure analysis. In this paper we tackle the topic of practicality of FIA. We analyze the most commonly used techniques that can be found in the literature, such as voltage/clock glitching, electromagnetic pulses, lasers, and Rowhammer attacks. To summarize, FIA can be mounted on most commonly used architectures from ARM, Intel, AMD, by utilizing injection devices that are often below the thousand dollar mark. Therefore, we believe these attacks can be considered practical in many scenarios, especially when the attacker can physically access the target device.

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Software Fault-Proneness Analysis based on Composite Developer-Module Networks

Existing software fault-proneness analysis and prediction models can be categorized into software metrics and visualized approaches. However, the studies of the software metrics solely rely on the quantified data, while the latter fails to reflect the human aspect, which is proven to be a main cause of many failures in various domains. In this paper, we proposed a new analysis model with an improved software network called Composite Developer-Module Network. The network is composed of the linkage of both developers to software modules and software modules to modules to reflect the characteristics and interaction between developers. After the networks of the research objects are built, several different sub-graphs in the networks are derived from analyzing the structures of the sub-graphs that are more fault-prone and further determine whether the software development is in a bad structure, thus predicting the fault-proneness. Our research shows that the different sub-structures are not only a factor in fault-proneness, but also that the complexity of the sub-structure can affect the production of bugs.

*Published in the IEEE Reliability Society Section within IEEE Access.

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A Comprehensive Survey on Cooperative Intersection Management for Heterogeneous Connected Vehicles

Nowadays, with the advancement of technology, world is trending toward high mobility and dynamics. In this context, intersection management (IM) as one of the most crucial elements of the transportation sector demands high attention. Today, road entities including infrastructures, vulnerable road users (VRUs) such as motorcycles, moped, scooters, pedestrians, bicycles, and other types of vehicles such as trucks, buses, cars, emergency vehicles, and railway vehicles like trains or trams are able to communicate cooperatively using vehicle-to-everything (V2X) communications and provide traffic safety, efficiency, infotainment and ecological improvements. In this paper, we take into account different types of intersections in terms of signalized, semi-autonomous (hybrid) and autonomous intersections and conduct a comprehensive survey on various intersection management methods for heterogeneous connected vehicles (CVs). We consider heterogeneous classes of vehicles such as road and rail vehicles as well as VRUs including bicycles, scooters and motorcycles. All kinds of intersection goals, modeling, coordination architectures, scheduling policies are thoroughly discussed. Signalized and semi-autonomous intersections are assessed with respect to these parameters. We especially focus on autonomous intersection management (AIM) and categorize this section based on four major goals involving safety, efficiency, infotainment and environment. Each intersection goal provides an in-depth investigation on the corresponding literature from the aforementioned perspectives. Moreover, robustness and resiliency of IM are explored from diverse points of view encompassing sensors, information management and sharing, planning universal scheme, heterogeneous collaboration, vehicle classification, quality measurement, external factors, intersection types, localization faults, communication anomalies and channel optimization, synchronization, vehicle dynamics and model mismatch, model uncertainties, recovery, security and privacy.

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The Cubli: Modeling and Nonlinear Attitude Control Utilizing Quaternions

This paper covers the modeling and nonlinear attitude control of the Cubli, a cube with three reaction wheels mounted on orthogonal faces that becomes a reaction wheel based 3D inverted pendulum when positioned in one of its vertices. The proposed approach utilizes quaternions instead of Euler angles as feedback control states. A nice advantage of quaternions, besides the usual arguments to avoid singularities and trigonometric functions, is that it allows working out quite complex dynamic equations completely by hand utilizing vector notation. Modeling is performed utilizing Lagrange equations and it is validated through computer simulations and Poinsot trajectories analysis. The derived nonlinear control law is based on feedback linearization technique, thus being time-invariant and equivalent to a linear one dynamically linearized at the given reference. Moreover, it is characterized by only three straightforward tuning parameters. Experimental results are presented.

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