Deep Embedded Clustering Framework for Mixed Data

Deep embedded clustering (DEC) is a representative clustering algorithm that leverages deep-learning frameworks. DEC jointly learns low-dimensional feature representations and optimizes the clustering goals but only works with numerical data. However, in practice, the real-world data to be clustered includes not only numerical features but also categorical features that DEC cannot handle. In addition, if the difference between the soft assignment and target values is large, DEC applications may suffer from convergence problems. In this study, to overcome these limitations, we propose a deep embedded clustering framework that can utilize mixed data to increase the convergence stability using soft-target updates; a concept that is borrowed from an improved deep Q learning algorithm used in reinforcement learning. To evaluate the performance of the framework, we utilized various benchmark datasets composed of mixed data and empirically demonstrated that our approach outperformed existing clustering algorithms in most standard metrics. To the best of our knowledge, we state that our work achieved state-of-the-art performance among its contemporaries in this field.

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Chat2VIS: Generating Data Visualizations via Natural Language Using ChatGPT, Codex and GPT-3 Large Language Models

The field of data visualisation has long aimed to devise solutions for generating visualisations directly from natural language text. Research in Natural Language Interfaces (NLIs) has contributed towards the development of such techniques. However, the implementation of workable NLIs has always been challenging due to the inherent ambiguity of natural language, as well as in consequence of unclear and poorly written user queries which pose problems for existing language models in discerning user intent. Instead of pursuing the usual path of developing new iterations of language models, this study uniquely proposes leveraging the advancements in pre-trained large language models (LLMs) such as ChatGPT and GPT-3 to convert free-form natural language directly into code for appropriate visualisations. This paper presents a novel system, Chat2VIS, which takes advantage of the capabilities of LLMs and demonstrates how, with effective prompt engineering, the complex problem of language understanding can be solved more efficiently, resulting in simpler and more accurate end-to-end solutions than prior approaches. Chat2VIS shows that LLMs together with the proposed prompts offer a reliable approach to rendering visualisations from natural language queries, even when queries are highly misspecified and underspecified. This solution also presents a significant reduction in costs for the development of NLI systems, while attaining greater visualisation inference abilities compared to traditional NLP approaches that use hand-crafted grammar rules and tailored models. This study also presents how LLM prompts can be constructed in a way that preserves data security and privacy while being generalisable to different datasets. This work compares the performance of GPT-3, Codex and ChatGPT across several case studies and contrasts the performances with prior studies.

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Nanoflowers Versus Magnetosomes: Comparison Between Two Promising Candidates for Magnetic Hyperthermia Therapy

Magnetic Fluid Hyperthermia mediated by iron oxide nanoparticles is one of the most promising therapies for cancer treatment. Among the different candidates, magnetite and maghemite nanoparticles have revealed to be some of the most promising candidates due to both their performance and their biocompatibility. Nonetheless, up to date, the literature comparing the heating efficiency of magnetite and maghemite nanoparticles of similar size is scarce. To fill this gap, here we provide a comparison between commercial Synomag Nanoflowers (pure maghemite) and bacterial magnetosomes (pure magnetite) synthesized by the magnetotactic bacterium Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense of ⟨D⟩≈ 40 –45 nm. Both types of nanoparticles exhibit a high degree of crystallinity and an excellent degree of chemical purity and stability. The structural and magnetic properties in both nanoparticle ensembles have been studied by means of X–Ray Diffraction, Transmission Electron Microscopy, X–Ray Absorption Spectroscopy, and SQUID magnetometry. The heating efficiency has been analyzed in both systems using AC magnetometry at several field amplitudes (0–88 mT) and frequencies (130, 300, and 530 kHz).

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Published in the IEEE Magnetics Society Section.

Enter the Best Video Award for the Opportunity to Win $500

The 2024 IEEE Access Best Video Award Part 1 is a contest to win a prize of a $500 USD Amazon gift card for a corresponding author who submits the best video with an IEEE Access article submission. The best video will be selected by an independent editorial judging committee.

Once you submit your article and video through the IEEE Author Portal, and review and sign the electronic copy of the Terms and Conditions below, your video will be eligible to be considered for the award.

Currently accepting entries for articles with video submitted between January 1, 2024 and June 30, 2024.

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    An Experimental-Based Review of Image Enhancement and Image Restoration Methods for Underwater Imaging

    Underwater images play a key role in ocean exploration but often suffer from severe quality degradation due to light absorption and scattering in water medium. Although major breakthroughs have been made recently in the general area of image enhancement and restoration, the applicability of new methods for improving the quality of underwater images has not specifically been captured. In this paper, we review the image enhancement and restoration methods that tackle typical underwater image impairments, including some extreme degradations and distortions. First, we introduce the key causes of quality reduction in underwater images, in terms of the underwater image formation model (IFM). Then, we review underwater restoration methods, considering both the IFM-free and the IFM-based approaches. Next, we present an experimental-based comparative evaluation of the state-of-the-art IFM-free and IFM-based methods, considering also the prior-based parameter estimation algorithms of the IFM-based methods, using both subjective and objective analyses (the used code is freely available at https://github.com/wangyanckxx/SingleUnderwaterImageEnhancementandColorRestoration). Starting from this paper, we pinpoint the key shortcomings of existing methods, drawing recommendations for future research in this area. Our review of underwater image enhancement and restoration provides researchers with the necessary background to appreciate challenges and opportunities in this important field.

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    Phantom Malware: Conceal Malicious Actions From Malware Detection Techniques by Imitating User Activity

    State of the art malware detection techniques only consider the interaction of programs with the operating system’s API (system calls) for malware classification. This paper demonstrates that techniques like these are insufficient. A point that is overlooked by the currently existing techniques is presented in this paper: Malware is able to interact with windows providing the corresponding functionality in order to execute the desired action by mimicking user activity. In other words, harmful actions will be masked as simulated user actions. To start with, the article introduces User Imitating techniques for concealing malicious commands of the malware as impersonated user activity. Thereafter, the concept of Phantom Malware will be presented: This malware is constantly applying User Imitating to execute each of its malicious actions. A Phantom Ransomware (ransomware employs the User Imitating for every of its malicious actions) is implemented in C++ for testing anti-virus programs in Windows 10. Software of various manufacturers are applied for testing purposes. All of them failed without exception. This paper analyzes the reasons why these products failed and further, presents measures that have been developed against Phantom Malware based on the test results.

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    Security Hardening of Intelligent Reflecting Surfaces Against Adversarial Machine Learning Attacks

    Next-generation communication networks, also known as NextG or 5G and beyond, are the future data transmission systems that aim to connect a large amount of Internet of Things (IoT) devices, systems, applications, and consumers at high-speed data transmission and low latency. Fortunately, NextG networks can achieve these goals with advanced telecommunication, computing, and Artificial Intelligence (AI) technologies in the last decades and support a wide range of new applications. Among advanced technologies, AI has a significant and unique contribution to achieving these goals for beamforming, channel estimation, and Intelligent Reflecting Surfaces (IRS) applications of 5G and beyond networks. However, the security threats and mitigation for AI-powered applications in NextG networks have not been investigated deeply in academia and industry due to being new and more complicated. This paper focuses on an AI-powered IRS implementation in NextG networks along with its vulnerability against adversarial machine learning attacks. This paper also proposes the defensive distillation mitigation method to defend and improve the robustness of the AI-powered IRS model, i.e., reduce the vulnerability. The results indicate that the defensive distillation mitigation method can significantly improve the robustness of AI-powered models and their performance under an adversarial attack.

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    Rotation Representations and Their Conversions

    A rigid body motion, which can be decomposed into rotation and translation, is essential for engineers and scientists who deal with moving systems in a space. While translation is as simple as vector addition, rotation is hard to understand because rotations are non-Euclidean, and there are many ways to represent them. Additionally, each representation comes with complex operations, and the conversions between different representations are not unique. Therefore, in this tutorial we review rotation representations which are widely used in industry and academia such as rotation matrices, Euler angles, rotation axis-angles, unit complex numbers, and unit quaternions. In particular, for better understanding we begin with rotations in a two dimensional space and extend them to a three dimensional space. In that context, we learn how to represent rotations in a two dimensional space with rotation angles and unit complex numbers, and extend them respectively to Euler angles and unit quaternions for rotations in a three dimensional space. The definitions and properties of mathematical entities used for representing rotations as well as the conversions between various rotation representations are summarized in tables for the reader’s later convenience.

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    Tool Wear Monitoring Based on Transfer Learning and Improved Deep Residual Network

    Considering the complex structure weight of the existing tool wear state monitoring model based on deep learning, prone to over-fitting and requiring a large amount of training data, a monitoring method based on Transfer Learning and Improved Deep Residual Network is proposed. First, the data is preprocessed, one-dimensional cutting force data are transformed into two-dimensional spectrum by wavelet transform. Then, the Improved Deep Residual Network is built and the residual module structure is optimized. The Dropout layer is introduced and the global average pooling technique is used instead of the fully connected layer. Finally, the Improved Deep Residual Network is used as the pre-training network model and the tool wear state monitoring model combined with the model-based Transfer Learning method is constructed. The results show that the accuracy of the proposed monitoring method is up to 99.74%. The presented network model has the advantages of simple structure, small number of parameters, good robustness and reliability. The ideal classification effect can be achieved with fewer iterations.

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    An Intelligent IoT Sensing System for Rail Vehicle Running States Based on TinyML

    Real-time identification of the running state is one of the key technologies for a smart rail vehicle. However, it is a challenge to accurately real-time sense the complex running states of the rail vehicle on an Internet-of-Things (IoT) edge device. Traditional systems usually upload a large amount of real-time data from the vehicle to the cloud for identification, which is laborious and inefficient. In this paper, an intelligent identification method for rail vehicle running state is proposed based on Tiny Machine Learning (TinyML) technology, and an IoT system is developed with small size and low energy consumption. The system uses a Micro-Electro-Mechanical System (MEMS) sensor to collect acceleration data for machine learning training. A neural network model for recognizing the running state of rail vehicles is built and trained by defining a machine learning running state classification model. The trained recognition model is deployed to the IoT edge device at the vehicle side, and an offset time window method is utilized for real-time state sensing. In addition, the sensing results are uploaded to the IoT server for visualization. The experiments on the subway vehicle showed that the system could identify six complex running states in real-time with over 99% accuracy using only one IoT microcontroller. The model with three axes converges faster than the model with one. The model recognition accuracy remained above 98% and 95%, under different installation positions on the rail vehicle and the zero-drift phenomenon of the MEMS acceleration sensor, respectively. The presented method and system can also be extended to edge-aware applications of equipment such as automobiles and ships.

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