Machine Learning Based Transient Stability Emulation and Dynamic System Equivalencing of Large-Scale AC-DC Grids for Faster-Than-Real-Time Digital Twin

Modern power systems have been expanding significantly including the integration of high voltage direct current (HVDC) systems, bringing a tremendous computational challenge to transient stability simulation for dynamic security assessment (DSA). In this work, a practical method for energy control center with the machine learning (ML) based synchronous generator model (SGM) and dynamic equivalent model (DEM) is proposed to reduce the computational burden of the traditional transient stability (TS) simulation. The proposed ML-based models are deployed on the field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) for faster-than-real-time (FTRT) digital twin hardware emulation of the real power system. The Gated Recurrent Unit (GRU) algorithm is adopted to train the SGM and DEM, where the training and testing datasets are obtained from the off-line simulation tool DSAToolsTM/TSAT®. A test system containing 15 ACTIVSg 500-bus systems interconnected by a 15-terminal DC grid is established for validating the accuracy of the proposed FTRT digital twin emulation platform. Due to the complexity of emulating large-scale AC-DC grid, multiple FPGA boards are applied, and a proper interface strategy is also proposed for data synchronization. As a result, the efficacy of the hardware emulation is demonstrated by two case studies, where an FTRT ratio of more than 684 is achieved by applying the GRU-SGM, while it reaches over 208 times for hybrid computational-ML based digital twin of AC-DC grid.

*Published in the IEEE Power & Energy Society Section within IEEE Access.

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Robust Stereo Visual SLAM for Dynamic Environments With Moving Object

The accuracy of localization and mapping of automated guided vehicles (AGVs) using visual simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) is significantly reduced in a dynamic environment compared to a static environment due to incorrect data association caused by dynamic objects. To solve this problem, a robust stereo SLAM algorithm based on dynamic region rejection is proposed. The algorithm first detects dynamic feature points from the fundamental matrix of consecutive frames and then divides the current frame into superpixels and labels its boundaries with disparity. Finally, dynamic regions are obtained from dynamic feature points and superpixel boundaries types; only the static area is used to estimate the pose to improve the localization accuracy and robustness of the algorithm. Experiments show that the proposed algorithm outperforms ORB-SLAM2 in the KITTI dataset, and the absolute trajectory error in the actual dynamic environment can be reduced by 84% compared with the conventional ORB-SLAM2, which can effectively improve the localization and mapping accuracy of AGVs in dynamic environments.

*Published in the IEEE Vehicular Technology Society Section within IEEE Access.

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