A Review on Microgrids’ Challenges & Perspectives

Due to the sheer global energy crisis, concerns about fuel exhaustion, electricity shortages, and global warming are becoming increasingly severe. Solar and wind energy, which are clean and renewable, provide solutions to these problems through distributed generators. Microgrids, as an essential interface to connect the power produced by renewable energy resources-based distributed generators to the power system, have become a research hotspot. Modern research in the field of microgrids has focused on the integration of microgrid technology at the load level. Due to the complexity of protection and control of multiple interconnected distributed generators, the traditional power grids are now outmoded. Microgrids are feasible alternatives to the conventional grid since they provide an integrating platform for micro-resources-based distributed generators, storage equipment, loads, and voltage source converters at the user end, all within a compact footprint. A microgrid can be architected to function either in grid-connected or standalone mode, depending upon the generation, integration potential to the main grid, and consumers’ requirements. The amalgamation of distributed energy resources-based microgrids to the conventional power system is giving rise to a new power framework. Nevertheless, the grids’ control, protection, operational stability, and reliability are major concerns. There has yet to be an effective real-time implementation and commercialization of micro-grids. This review article summarizes various concerns associated with microgrids’ technical and economic aspects and challenges, power flow controllers, microgrids’ role in smart grid development, main flaws, and future perspectives.

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