Video Based Mobility Monitoring of Elderly People Using Deep Learning Models

In recent years, the number of older people living alone has increased rapidly. Innovative vision systems to remotely assess people’s mobility can help healthy, active, and happy aging. In the related literature, the mobility assessment of older people is not yet widespread in clinical practice. In addition, the poor availability of data typically forces the analyses to binary classification, e.g. normal/anomalous behavior, instead of processing exhaustive medical protocols. In this paper, real videos of elderly people performing three mobility tests of a clinical protocol are automatically categorized, emulating the complex evaluation process of expert physiotherapists. Videos acquired using low-cost cameras are initially processed to obtain skeletal information. A proper data augmentation technique is then used to enlarge the dataset variability. Thus, significant features are extracted to generate a set of inputs in the form of time series. Four deep neural network architectures with feedback connections, even aided by a preliminary convolutional layer, are proposed to label the input features in discrete classes or to estimate a continuous mobility score as the result of a regression task. The best results are achieved by the proposed Conv-BiLSTM classifier, which achieves the best accuracy, ranging between 88.12% and 90%. Further comparisons with shallow learning classifiers still prove the superiority of the deep Conv-BiLSTM classifier in assessing people’s mobility, since deep networks can evaluate the quality of test executions.

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Novel Multi Center and Threshold Ternary Pattern Based Method for Disease Detection Method Using Voice

Smart health is one of the most popular and important components of smart cities. It is a relatively new context-aware healthcare paradigm influenced by several fields of expertise, such as medical informatics, communications and electronics, bioengineering, ethics, to name a few. Smart health is used to improve healthcare by providing many services such as patient monitoring, early diagnosis of disease and so on. The artificial neural network (ANN), support vector machine (SVM) and deep learning models, especially the convolutional neural network (CNN), are the most commonly used machine learning approaches where they proved to be performance in most cases. Voice disorders are rapidly spreading especially with the development of medical diagnostic systems, although they are often underestimated. Smart health systems can be an easy and fast support to voice pathology detection. The identification of an algorithm that discriminates between pathological and healthy voices with more accuracy is needed to obtain a smart and precise mobile health system. The main contribution of this paper consists of proposing a multiclass-pathologic voice classification using a novel multileveled textural feature extraction with iterative feature selector. Our approach is a simple and efficient voice-based algorithm in which a multi-center and multi threshold based ternary pattern is used (MCMTTP). A more compact multileveled features are then obtained by sample-based discretization techniques and Neighborhood Component Analysis (NCA) is applied to select features iteratively. These features are finally integrated with MCMTTP to achieve an accurate voice-based features detection. Experimental results of six classifiers with three diagnostic diseases (frontal resection, cordectomy and spastic dysphonia) show that the fused features are more suitable for describing voice-based disease detection.

*Published in the IEEE Electronics Packaging Society Section within IEEE Access.

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Artificial Intelligence and COVID-19: Deep Learning Approaches for Diagnosis and Treatment

COVID-19 outbreak has put the whole world in an unprecedented difficult situation bringing life around the world to a frightening halt and claiming thousands of lives. Due to COVID-19’s spread in 212 countries and territories and increasing numbers of infected cases and death tolls mounting to 5,212,172 and 334,915 (as of May 22 2020), it remains a real threat to the public health system. This paper renders a response to combat the virus through Artificial Intelligence (AI). Some Deep Learning (DL) methods have been illustrated to reach this goal, including Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs), Extreme Learning Machine (ELM), and Long/Short Term Memory (LSTM). It delineates an integrated bioinformatics approach in which different aspects of information from a continuum of structured and unstructured data sources are put together to form the user-friendly platforms for physicians and researchers. The main advantage of these AI-based platforms is to accelerate the process of diagnosis and treatment of the COVID-19 disease. The most recent related publications and medical reports were investigated with the purpose of choosing inputs and targets of the network that could facilitate reaching a reliable Artificial Neural Network-based tool for challenges associated with COVID-19. Furthermore, there are some specific inputs for each platform, including various forms of the data, such as clinical data and medical imaging which can improve the performance of the introduced approaches toward the best responses in practical applications.

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Most Popular Article of 2017: Disease Prediction by Machine Learning Over Big Data From Healthcare Communities

With big data growth in biomedical and healthcare communities, accurate analysis of medical data benefits early disease detection, patient care, and community services. However, the analysis accuracy is reduced when the quality of medical data is incomplete. Moreover, different regions exhibit unique characteristics of certain regional diseases, which may weaken the prediction of disease outbreaks. In this paper, we streamline machine learning algorithms for effective prediction of chronic disease outbreak in disease-frequent communities. We experiment the modified prediction models over real-life hospital data collected from central China in 2013-2015. To overcome the difficulty of incomplete data, we use a latent factor model to reconstruct the missing data. We experiment on a regional chronic disease of cerebral infarction. We propose a new convolutional neural network (CNN)-based multimodal disease risk prediction algorithm using structured and unstructured data from hospital. To the best of our knowledge, none of the existing work focused on both data types in the area of medical big data analytics. Compared with several typical prediction algorithms, the prediction accuracy of our proposed algorithm reaches 94.8% with a convergence speed, which is faster than that of the CNN-based unimodal disease risk prediction algorithm.

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IEEE Access Article Awarded First Prize for Outstanding Research Articles in Biosurveillance

IEEE Access is extremely proud to announce that one of its published articles won first prize in the 2019 Awards for Outstanding Research Articles in Biosurveillance (Impact on Field of Biosurveillance Category) given by the International Society for Disease Surveillance. The article by Brenas, Al-Manir, Baker, & Shaban-Nejad entitled, “A Malaria Analytics Framework to Support Evolution and Interoperability of Global Health Surveillance Systems” was published in October 2017.

This prestigious award was presented by the International Society for Disease Surveillance, the premier organization dedicated to the advancement of the science and practice of biosurveillance. The award was created to recognize professionals and scientists of diseases surveillance for their outstanding contributions to this area of research. 

We congratulate these IEEE Access authors for their high-quality work, and thank them for choosing IEEE Access to publish their outstanding research. To read the full award-winning article, please click here.


Mining of Nutritional Ingredients in Food for Disease Analysis

Suitable nutritional diets have been widely recognized as important measures to prevent and control non-communicable diseases (NCDs). However, there is little research on nutritional ingredients in food now, which are beneficial to the rehabilitation of NCDs. In this paper, we profoundly analyzed the relationship between nutritional ingredients and diseases by using data mining methods. First, more than 7000 diseases were obtained, and we collected the recommended food and taboo food for each disease. Then, referring to the China Food Nutrition , we used noise intensity and information entropy to find out which nutritional ingredients can exert positive effects on diseases. Finally, we proposed an improved algorithm named CVNDA_Red based on rough sets to select the corresponding core ingredients from the positive nutritional ingredients. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to discuss the relationship between nutritional ingredients in food and diseases through data mining based on rough set theory in China. The experiments on real-life data show that our method based on data mining improves the performance compared with the traditional statistical approach, with the precision of 1.682. In addition, for some common diseases, such as diabetes, hypertension and heart disease, our work is able to identify correctly the first two or three nutritional ingredients in food that can benefit the rehabilitation of those diseases. These experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of applying data mining in selecting of nutritional ingredients in food for disease analysis.

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Dengue Epidemics Prediction: A Survey of the State-of-the-Art based on Data Science Processes

Dengue infection is a mosquito-borne disease caused by dengue viruses, which are carried by several species of mosquito of the genus Aedes, principally Ae. aegypti. Dengue outbreaks are endemic in tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world, mainly in urban and sub-urban areas. The outbreak is one of the top ten diseases causing the most deaths worldwide. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), dengue infection has increased 30-fold globally over the past five decades. About 50 to 100 million new infections occur annually in more than 80 countries. Many researchers are working on measures to prevent and control the spread. One avenue of research is collaboration between computer science and the epidemiology researchers in developing methods of predicting potential outbreaks of dengue infection. An important research objective is to develop models that enable, or enhance, forecasting of outbreaks of dengue, giving medical professionals the opportunity to develop plans for handling the outbreak, well in advance. Researchers have been gathering and analyzing data to better identify the relational factors driving the spread of the disease, as well as the development of a variety of methods of predictive modelling using statistical and mathematical analysis and Machine Learning. In this substantial review of the literature on the state of the art of research over the past decades, we identified six main issues to be explored and analyzed: (1) The available data sources, (2) Data preparation techniques, (3) Data representations, (4) Forecasting models and methods, (5) Dengue forecasting models evaluation approaches, and (6) Future challenges and possibilities in forecasting modelling of dengue outbreaks. Our comprehensive exploration of the issues provides a valuable information foundation for new researchers in this important area of public health research and epidemiology.

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