On the Cyber-Physical Needs of DER-Based Voltage Control/Optimization Algorithms in Active Distribution Network

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With the increasing penetration of distributed energy resources (DERs) and extensive usage of information and communications technology (ICT) in decision-making, mechanisms to control/optimize transmission and distribution grid voltage would experience a paradigm shift. Given the introduction of inverter-based DERs with vastly different dynamics, real-world performance characterization of the cyber-physical system (CPS) in terms of dynamical performance, scalability, robustness, and resiliency with the new control algorithms require precise algorithmic classification and suitable metrics. It has been identified that classical controller definitions along with three inter-disciplinary domains, such as (i) power system, (ii) optimization, control, and decision-making, and (iii) networking and cyber-security, would provide a systematic basis for the development of an extended metric for algorithmic performance evaluation; while providing the taxonomy. Furthermore, a majority of these control algorithms operate in multiple time scales, and therefore, algorithmic time decomposition facilitates a new way of performance analysis. Extended discussion on communication requirements while focusing on the architectural subtleties of algorithms is expected to identify the real-world deployment challenges of voltage control/optimization algorithms in the presence of cyber vulnerabilities and associated mitigation mechanisms affecting the controller performance with DERs. Finally, the detailed discussion provided in this paper identifies the modeling requirements of the CPS for real-world deployment, specific to voltage control, facilitating the development of a unified test-bed.

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Published in the IEEE Power & Energy Society Section within IEEE Access