Dynamic Network Slice Scaling Assisted by Attention-Based Prediction in 5G Core Network

Network slicing is a key technology in fifth-generation (5G) networks that allows network operators to create multiple logical networks over a shared physical infrastructure to meet the requirements of diverse use cases. Among core functions to implement network slicing, resource management and scaling are difficult challenges. Network operators must ensure the Service Level Agreement (SLA) requirements for latency, bandwidth, resources, etc for each network slice while utilizing the limited resources efficiently, i.e., optimal resource assignment and dynamic resource scaling for each network slice. Existing resource scaling approaches can be classified into reactive and proactive types. The former makes a resource scaling decision when the resource usage of virtual network functions (VNFs) exceeds a predefined threshold, and the latter forecasts the future resource usage of VNFs in network slices by utilizing classical statistical models or deep learning models. However, both have a trade-off between assurance and efficiency. For instance, the lower threshold in the reactive approach or more marginal prediction in the proactive approach can meet the requirements more certainly, but it may cause unnecessary resource wastage. To overcome the trade-off, we first propose a novel and efficient proactive resource forecasting algorithm. The proposed algorithm introduces an attention-based encoder-decoder model for multivariate time series forecasting to achieve high short-term and long-term prediction accuracies. It helps network slices be scaled up and down effectively and reduces the costs of SLA violations and resource overprovisioning. Using the attention mechanism, the model attends to every hidden state of the sequential input at every time step to select the most important time steps affecting the prediction results. We also designed an automated resource configuration mechanism responsible for monitoring resources and automatically adding or removing VNF instances.

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Orthogonal Chirp-Division Multiplexing for Future Converged Optical/Millimeter-Wave Radio Access Networks

Envisaged network scaling in the beyond 5G and 6G era makes the optical transport of high bandwidth radio signals a critical aspect for future radio access networks (RANs), while the move toward wireless transmission in millimeter-wave (mm-wave) and terahertz (THz) environments is pushing a departure from the currently deployed orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) modulation scheme. In this work, the orthogonal chirp-division multiplexing (OCDM) waveform is experimentally deployed in a converged optical/mm-wave transmission system comprising 10 km analog radio-over-fiber (A-RoF) transmission, remote mm-wave generation and 2 m wireless transmission at 60 GHz. System performance is evaluated in terms of both bit error ratio (BER) and error vector magnitude (EVM) for a wideband 4 GHz 16 Gb/s signal and 128/256-Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM) mobile signals compatible with 5G new radio numerology. OCDM is shown to outperform OFDM by offering enhanced robustness to channel frequency selectivity, enabling performances below the forward error correction (FEC) limit in all cases and exhibiting an EVM as low as 3.4% in the case of the mobile signal transmission.

*Published in the IEEE Photonics Society Section within IEEE Access.

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Doppler Spectrum Measurement Platform for Narrowband V2V Channels

This paper describes the implementation of a Doppler spectrum measurement platform for narrowband frequency-dispersive vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) channels. The platform is based on a continuous-wave (CW) channel sounding approach widely used for path-loss and large-scale fading measurements, but whose effectiveness to measure the Doppler spectrum of V2V channels is not equally known. This channel sounding method is implemented using general-purpose hardware in a configuration that is easy to replicate and that enables a partial characterization of frequency-dispersive V2V channels at a fraction of the cost of a dedicated channel sounder. The platform was assessed in a series of field experiments that collected empirical data of the instantaneous Doppler spectrum, the mean Doppler shift, the Doppler spread, the path-loss profile, and the large-scale fading distribution of V2V channels under realistic driving conditions. These experiments were conducted in a highway scenario near San Luis Potosí, México, at two different carrier frequencies, one at 760MHz and the other at 2,500MHz. The transmitting and receiving vehicles were moving in the same direction at varying speeds, ranging from 20 to 130km/h and dictated by the unpredictable traffic conditions. The obtained results demonstrate that the presented measurement platform enables the spectral characterization of narrowband V2V channels and the identification of their Doppler signatures in relevant road-safety scenarios, such as those involving overtaking maneuvers and rapid vehicles approaching the transmitter and receiver in the opposite direction.

*Published in the IEEE Vehicular Society Section within IEEE Access.

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Rapid and Flexible 3D Printed Finger Prostheses With Soft Fingertips: Technique and Clinical Application

We present a method for fabricating passive finger prostheses with soft fingertips by utilizing 3D scanning and 3D printing with flexible filament. The proposed method uses multi-process printing at varying infill levels to provide soft fingertips to emulate biological fingers. The proposed method also enables rapid prototyping of finger prostheses, and the flexibility to change interphalangeal joint angles to fit the prostheses for different manipulation and occupational therapy tasks. The entire process of designing and fabricating the prostheses can be conducted in one day. The presented technique uses scan data of the intact side fingers to provide the shape and contour of the finger prostheses, while the socket is designed based on the scan data of the amputation side. The paper presents the developed technique and its clinical application. Experiments are conducted to measure the stiffness of the printed material at varying infill levels and the stiffness of the printed fingertips. The results are compared to measurements of biological fingertip stiffness from the literature. The clinical application includes two cases, one case with distal phalanx loss on the thumb, index, and middle fingers, and one case with distal and middle phalanx loss on the middle and ring fingers. Fitting was successful for both recipients and they were both able to use the prostheses successfully.

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A Novel Symmetric Stacked Autoencoder for Adversarial Domain Adaptation Under Variable Speed

At present, most of the fault diagnosis methods with extensive research and good diagnostic effect are based on the premise that the sample distribution is consistent. However, in reality, the sample distribution of rotating machinery is inconsistent due to variable working conditions, and most of the fault diagnosis algorithms have poor diagnostic effects or even invalid. To dispose the above problems, a novel symmetric stacked autoencoder (NSSAE) for adversarial domain adaptation is proposed. Firstly, the symmetric stacked autoencoder network with shared weights is used as the feature extractor to extract features which can better express the original signal. Secondly, adding domain discriminator that constituting adversarial with feature extractor to enhance the ability of feature extractor to extract domain invariant features, thus confusing the domain discriminator and making it unable to correctly distinguish the features of the two domains. Finally, to assist the adversarial training, the maximum mean discrepancy (MMD) is added to the last layer of the feature extractor to align the features of the two domains in the high-dimensional space. The experimental results show that, under the condition of variable speed, the NSSAE model can extract domain invariant features to achieve the transfer between domains, and the transfer diagnosis accuracy is high and the stability is strong.

*Published in the IEEE Reliability Society Section within IEEE Access.

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Dynamic Analysis of Surface-Mounted Permanent Magnet Type Coaxial Magnetic Gear With Damper Bar Considering Magnetic Field Modulation Effect

Coaxial Magnetic Gear (CMG) has unstable dynamic characteristics by hunting or pull-out action of the output rotor when the load or speed are changed, unlike traditional mechanical gears. These dynamic characteristics need to be improved in order to secure the reliability of mechanical power transmission system by fast and accurate response. In this paper, the damper bar used in synchronous machines is considered as a method to improve the dynamic characteristics of CMG. The Surface-mounted Permanent Magnet (SPM) type CMG is selected as the analysis model. The space harmonics of the magnetic flux density of stationary and rotary members of CMG namely, modulating pieces, inner and outer rotor, are analyzed and characterized the influence of them on the improvement of dynamic characteristics as well as torque reduction. Also, the magnetic flux density characteristics and the damping effect are compared according to the position of the damper bars on two rotors and the modulating pieces. In conclusion, the considerations about the perspective for design and application are presented when using the damper bar for SPM type CMG.

*Published in the IEEE Magnetics Society Section within IEEE Access.

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Lightweight Multifactor Authentication Scheme for NextGen Cellular Networks

With increased interest in 6G (6th Generation) cellular networks that can support intelligently small-cell communication will result in effective device-to-device (D2D) communication. High throughput requirement in 5G/6G cellular technology requires each device to act as intelligent transmission relays. Inclusion of such intelligence relays and support of quantum computing at D2D may compromise existing security mechanisms and may lead towards primitive attacks such as impersonation attack, rouge device attack, replay attack, MITM attack, and DoS attack. Thus, an effective yet lightweight security scheme is required that can support existing low computation devices and can address the challenges that 5G/6G poses. This paper proposes a Lightweight ECC (elliptic curve cryptography)-based Multifactor Authentication Protocol (LEMAP) for miniaturized mobile devices. LEMAP is the extension of our previous published work TLwS (trust-based lightweight security scheme) which utilizes ECC with Elgamal for achieving lightweight security protocol, confidentiality, integrity, and non-repudiation. Multi-factor Authentication is based on OTP (Biometrics, random number), timestamp, challenge, and password. This scheme has mitigated the above-mentioned attacks with significantly lower computation cost, communication cost, and authentication overhead. We have proven the correctness of the scheme using widely accepted Burrows-Abadi-Needham (BAN) logic and analyzed the performance of the scheme by using a simulator. The security analysis of the scheme has been conducted using the Discrete Logarithm Problem to verify any quantum attack possibility. The proposed scheme works well for 5G/6G cellular networks for single and multihop scenarios.

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ML-Based Classification of Device Environment Using Wi-Fi and Cellular Signal Measurements

Future spectrum sharing rules very likely will be based on device environment: indoors or outdoors. For example, the 6 GHz rules created different power regimes for unlicensed devices to protect incumbents: “indoor” devices, subject to lower transmit powers but not required to access an Automatic Frequency Control database to obtain permission to use a channel, and “outdoor” devices, allowed to transmit at higher power but required to do so to determine channel availability. However, since there are no reliable means of determining if a wireless device is indoors or outdoors, other restrictions were mandated: reduced power for client devices and indoor access points that cannot be battery powered, have detachable antennas or be weatherized. These constraints lead to sub-optimal spectrum usage and potential for misuse. Hence, there is a need for robust identification of device environments to enable spectrum sharing. In this paper we study automatic indoor/outdoor classification based on the radio frequency (RF) environment experienced by a device. Using a custom Android app, we first create a labeled data set of a number of parameters of Wi-Fi and cellular signals in various indoor and outdoor environments, and then evaluate the classification performance of various machine learning (ML) models on this data set. We find that tree-based ensemble ML models can achieve greater than 99% test accuracy and F1-Score, thus allowing devices to self-identify their environment and adapt their transmit power accordingly.

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Exponential Loss Minimization for Learning Weighted Naive Bayes Classifiers

The naive Bayesian classification method has received significant attention in the field of supervised learning. This method has an unrealistic assumption in that it views all attributes as equally important. Attribute weighting is one of the methods used to alleviate this assumption and consequently improve the performance of the naive Bayes classification. This study, with a focus on nonlinear optimization problems, proposes four attribute weighting methods by minimizing four different loss functions. The proposed loss functions belong to a family of exponential functions that makes the optimization problems more straightforward to solve, provides analytical properties of the trained classifier, and allows for the simple modification of the loss function such that the naive Bayes classifier becomes robust to noisy instances. This research begins with a typical exponential loss which is sensitive to noise and provides a series of its modifications to make naive Bayes classifiers more robust to noisy instances. Based on numerical experiments conducted using 28 datasets from the UCI machine learning repository, we confirmed that the proposed scheme successfully determines optimal attribute weights and improves the classification performance.

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A Metaverse: Taxonomy, Components, Applications, and Open Challenges

Unlike previous studies on the Metaverse based on Second Life, the current Metaverse is based on the social value of Generation Z that online and offline selves are not different. With the technological development of deep learning-based high-precision recognition models and natural generation models, Metaverse is being strengthened with various factors, from mobile-based always-on access to connectivity with reality using virtual currency. The integration of enhanced social activities and neural-net methods requires a new definition of Metaverse suitable for the present, different from the previous Metaverse. This paper divides the concepts and essential techniques necessary for realizing the Metaverse into three components (i.e., hardware, software, and contents) and three approaches (i.e., user interaction, implementation, and application) rather than marketing or hardware approach to conduct a comprehensive analysis. Furthermore, we describe essential methods based on three components and techniques to Metaverse’s representative Ready Player One, Roblox, and Facebook research in the domain of films, games, and studies. Finally, we summarize the limitations and directions for implementing the immersive Metaverse as social influences, constraints, and open challenges.

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